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Cervical cancer symptoms, causes and how to prevent and control the disease

Cervical cancer symptoms, causes and how to prevent and control the disease

Cervical cancer symptoms, causes and how to prevent and control the disease

  • Symptoms of cervical cancer, its causes and how to prevent and control the disease.
  • Cervical cancer is the second most common type of cancer among women worldwide, with an estimated 527,624 new cases and 265,653 deaths.
  • The death rate from accidents is 52 percent.
  • It is often the most common type of cancer among women in developing countries, and accounts for 88 percent of cases.
  • Cases and deaths have decreased significantly in the past 40 years in most industrialized countries, partly due to reduced risk factors, but mainly as a result of extensive screening programmes. Today in this article, I will talk to you about the most important symptoms of cervical cancer, its causes, and how to prevent and control the disease 

Natural history of cervical cancer:-

a. Disease: Cervical carcinoma appears to follow a gradual course from epithelial dysplasia to carcinoma in situ to invasive carcinoma. In simple words, carcinoma in situ means malignant changes that still have not penetrated the basement membrane and have not begun to infiltrate locally.

According to a large number of evidence, cancer in situ persists for a long time, more than 8 years on average. Once the invasive stage is reached, the disease spreads by direct extension to the lymph nodes and pelvic organs

B. Carcinogenic Agent:

  • There is evidence to suggest that human papillomavirus (HPV) - transmitted through sexual contact - is the cause of cervical cancer.
  • This virus was supposed to produce only plant warts, but is now recognized as responsible for much broader clinical and subclinical lesions.
  • The virus is found in more than 95% of cancers.
  • Current evidence suggests that the virus is a necessary but not sufficient cause of disease and researchers are now trying to identify other co-factors.

Risk factors:

1: Age : It affects relatively young women, with the incidence increasing rapidly from the age of 25 to 45.

2. Genital warts : Past/current presence of clinical genital warts is an important risk factor.

3- Marital status : the disease is related to sexual intercourse.

4- Early marriage : Early marriage, early intercourse, early childbearing and frequent childbirth were associated with increased risks.

5- Oral contraceptive pills : There is renewed concern about the possible relationship between oral contraceptive use and the development of invasive cervical cancer. A recent study by the World Health Organization (WHO) found that there is an increased risk with increased duration of oral contraceptive use and the use of oral contraceptives with a high content of estrogen.

6- Socio-economic category : It is more common in lower socio-economic groups which likely reflects poor reproductive hygiene.

Disease outbreak:

Staging of cervical cancer is considered clinical and is generally completed with a pelvic examination under sedation using cystoscopy and proctoscopy. In general, chest X-rays, intravenous pyelography, and computed tomography are required, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be used to detect extensions outside the cervix.

  • Stage I - disease confined to the cervix.
  • Stage II - the disease invades the cervix but does not extend into the pelvic wall or the lower third of the vagina.
  • Stage III - the disease extends to the lower third of the vagina or to the pelvic wall or causes hydronephrosis.
  • Stage IV - the tumor invades the mucosa of the bladder or rectum or extends beyond the true pelvis.

Symptoms of cervical cancer:-

The most common symptoms are listed as follows. One should not hesitate to consult a doctor even if one of them is present. Remember that the prognosis is highly dependent on the stage of discovery.

  • Abnormal bleeding or spotting after intercourse may increase to menstrual bleeding or prominent menstrual bleeding.
  • Pain during intercourse.
  • Yellow foul-smelling vaginal discharge.
  • Lumbar sacral back pain.
  • Urinary tract symptoms.

Prevention and control:-

1. Primary prevention: Until the causative factors are more clearly understood, there is no possibility of primary prevention. It may be that as personal hygiene and birth control improve, the cervix and uterus will show a reduction.

2. Secondary prevention: It is based on early detection and treatment of cases with radical surgery and radiotherapy. The 5-year survival rate is approximately 100 percent for carcinoma in situ. 79% for local invasive diseases. Cervical cancer is difficult to treat once symptoms appear and is fatal if left untreated. Prognosis strongly depends on the stage of the disease upon detection and treatment.

Treatment by stage:-

  • Stage 0- cone biopsy or abdominal hysterectomy.
  • Stage I - results appear equivalent to radical hysterectomy or radiotherapy.
  • Stage II to Stage IV - radical radiotherapy or modular and combined therapy.
  • The rectum, vagina and bladder can often be reconstructed after surgery.

That's it for today. If you feel there is something useful, please share this with your loved ones, and don't forget to reveal your thoughts in the comment box. Or if you have any great ideas or any questions, don't forget to share them by commenting. Until then, be happy, keep smiling, keep asking questions, and please keep reading my articles. See you in the next article.