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Obesity is one of the most important diseases of our time, which has reached epidemic proportion

Obesity is one of the most important diseases of our time, which has reached epidemic proportion

 Obesity is one of the most important diseases of our time, which has reached epidemic proportions

Obesity is one of the most important diseases of our time, which has reached epidemic proportions. Studies of specific molecular signaling pathways and tools are continuing, but research continues on whether a patient can reduce symptoms on their own and how to protect them from related diseases.

Today, studies are being conducted to prove the mechanisms linking obesity and cancer risk

 On the metabolic and endocrine effects of obesity and the changes it causes in the production of peptides and steroid hormones. In addition, obesity has been shown to contribute to the formation of several metabolic diseases, including dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, and the inflammatory process involved in the expression of cytokines and adipokines. 

Understanding the effects of obesity and its association with other diseases depends on understanding the types of molecules that play a role in this process. Then, understanding how routines in our daily lives relate to this disease and the effect of changing these routines on quality of life is one of the most important factors.

Homeostasis is the most important component for organisms to survive and reproduce in their life cycle. 

Homeostasis is the maintenance of regulation at the cellular level in constant awareness of homeostasis throughout the life of an organism. Evolution requires change, and organisms change in parallel with the period of time they are in the evolutionary cycle. As a result of evolution, the general understanding is that the adaptation of an organism to its environment is well founded. However, nature is not always in favor of living organisms, and from time to time various fatal symptoms that occur as a result of the deterioration of this balance take an active part in shortening the life span. 

Obesity, on the other hand, is a type of disease that centers around the metabolism and can be detected by exceeding the body mass index (BMI) that scientists are working on today, regardless of developed and underdeveloped countries. Obesity can be affected by many

 Factors such as genetic factors, unhealthy eating habits, and negative interactions with psychological factors. 

Human adipose tissue stores energy as fat. Triglycerides are the main storage fats. There are two main types of tissue, subcutaneous (subcutaneous) and visceral (inside the abdomen). Subcutaneous adipose tissue is largely defined as fatty tissue between the skin and muscle, while visceral fat is located in the main cavities of the body, especially the abdominal cavity. 

Abdominal visceral fat cells are more metabolically active than abdominal subcutaneous fat cells, since they have conversion activity to glycerol and free fatty acids as a result of hydrolysis of elevated triglycerides and the release of large amounts of free fatty acids.

 Another important factor in obesity measurements is the amount and location of fat. 

The values ​​provided by these two factors should be taken into special consideration. Definitions related to the classification of healthy weight and overweight and obesity in a population are determined and reported with the help of anthropometric measurement, historically called the branch of science that gives an idea of ​​a person's physical makeup using body measurements rather than clinical criteria.

 Although obesity does not seem to have a direct effect on diseases, but it does have an effect on the likelihood of occurrence in some diseases as well as causing some types of diseases directly or indirectly. Among these diseases

  •  heart disease;
  •  and stroke.
  • and diabetes.
  •  And different types of cancer.

 Obesity itself has fatal effects, and in 2017, the number of people who died prematurely due to obesity reached 4.7 million. These values ​​would correspond to 4 times the number of people who died in traffic accidents and five times the number of people who died of HIV/AIDS that year.

In another study in the same year, the results of data were shared that the effectiveness of obesity-induced kidney and diabetes on global mortality and disease of life was 83.3% per 100,000 people. Although it is known that functional capacity causes some complications in the respiratory system.

In line with these findings, obese patients have a high susceptibility to diseases associated with viral respiratory infection.

 However, although research on this topic continues, it is not possible to talk about a specific relationship. In the case of hormone-dependent tumors such as breast cancer, increased production of estrogen compounds with excess adipose tissue, production and secretion of secreting factors and angiogenic stimulants can contribute to tumor growth and metastasis. 

Evaluates the relationship between and/or prognosis. Early studies have shown that the relationship between BMI and breast cancer risk varies with menopausal status, and women with a higher BMI have a higher risk of developing postmenopausal breast cancer.

molecular mechanism:

When the molecular mechanism of obesity is examined, it has been observed that it is not possible to blame a single molecule. Leptin, a product of the obesity (ob) gene, is an important circulatory signal that plays a role in body weight regulation in the human body. 

The second molecule is a 16 kDa cytokine that was discovered in 1994 as a regulator of body weight and effective energy balance in the hypothalamus. In experiments to clone and examine this gene, it was found that it plays a very effective role in regulating the energy balance in our bodies. The leptin receptor is not only responsible for energy regulation, but also influences inflammatory mediators in some cancers and plays a role in promoting the growth of cancer-causing cells. 

However, the results of experiments with mice used as model organisms found that, unlike mice, human obesity is associated with the development of leptin resistance, not leptin deficiency. And this finding is kind of evidence that body fat is linked to Leptin. Mutations in the human ob gene are extremely rare. Leptin also acts as a growth factor in epithelial cells and promotes the development of many types of cancer.

This information shows that leptin has many different functions. Disruption of leptin signaling can affect a variety of systems, including the cardiovascular, immune, reproductive, and nervous systems. Expression of leptin in these regions indicates that leptin functions as a metabolic hormone (9).

 Leptin evolved as an evolutionary solution to the need for mammals to provide adequate fat stores to survive in poor environmental caloric conditions. One way to control energy stores is to regulate dietary behaviour. Thus, the concentration of circulating leptin, which is proportional to the total size and number of adipocytes, informs the brain and its nutritional circuit of the status of stored fat. Behavioral and metabolic homeostasis mediated by these circuits respond to this information. in the end of the day.


Cytokines secreted by adipose tissue into the blood can also activate macrophages and other inflammatory cells in the tissue. General data showed that the accumulation of adipose tissue with connective tissue during obesity is not in normal amounts. This variability at the level of macrophages confirms that it contributes to tumorigenesis.

 Inflammation is the body's response to harmful stimuli in order to protect homeostasis. This response also occurs due to obesity and, as a consequence, with systemic increases in circulating inflammatory cytokines and acute phase proteins, it leads to leukocyte accumulation in problem tissues, tissue leukocyte activation and restorative tissue responses. However, the nature of the inflammation caused by obesity is rooted in several aspects. 

Obesity that occurs in growing age, may also put you at risk for lifelong inflammation. In the study, C-reactive protein was identified as an important protein that plays a role in inflammation in the obesity process in adults. However, it was noted that this protein was detected in children over 3 years of age who later became obese.

It has been shown by studies that this marker that causes inflammation has long-term effects, and it is expressed during the development of children with obesity, and this represents a significant risk for development. Again, due to placenta accreta for a similar reason, inflammatory mechanisms may be activated in the mother's womb and affect the development of the fetus. 


According to our studies, obesity is cited as the cause of 14% of cancer deaths in men and 20% of women. In particular, chronic subclinical inflammation, deregulation of sex hormones, insulin/IGF-1 pathways and the secretion of various adipokines in which leptin plays a major role.

 Several closely related mechanisms have been proposed to explain the relationship between breast cancer and obesity. Hyperbaricemia is one of the pathophysiological factors for breast cancer in obesity. Leptin is considered as a hormone and adipokine. It is produced and excreted mainly by adipose tissue.

 It has also been found that the rate of cancer recurrence is high due to obesity in cancer survivors. Various studies have shown that insulin resistance resulting from hyperinsulinemia is associated with the onset of breast, prostate, colon and kidney cancers. The increase in insulin, which has been observed to occur with serious problems such as cancer, has been shown to increase its expression with insulin-like receptors rather than increasing its expression for each plug.

 It has also been noted that studies of the insulin-like growth receptor (IGF-IR) play a role in the development of this malignant receptor. We see that this receptor invites malignant tumors affected by obesity in addition to its resistance in the body. We see that this receptor invites malignant tumors affected by obesity in addition to its resistance in the body. We see that this receptor invites malignant tumors affected by obesity in addition to its resistance in the body.

Behavior and Economic Impact:

In the family dynamics that occur with the child, the child may be predisposed to obesity depending on the situation in which the psychosocial effects of these dynamics are positive or negative. In the process, the child is out of the long-term effect of the buildup of harmful protein.

As a result of the research conducted on these psychological factors, a depressive and not positive picture was observed, far from developing and adopting the concept of self-confidence, withdrawal, and far from expressing the problems and thoughts experienced by him. Although the effects of emotional change and psychological conditions on life are well known.

 It does show, however, that an approach aimed at improving emotional regulation in both adults and children can contribute to the effectiveness of a program designed to reduce obesity, given that it also plays a role in diseases such as obesity. If these psychological factors are not resolved in children during the growth process, we also see that they will deal with obesity in adulthood.

All over the world, social media and TV watching influence obesity and play an active role in dragging people into precarious lives. It has been proven by studies that time spent on these resources prevents healthy habits such as walking and exercising during the day.

Obesity caused by eating extra calories. Dangerous and invites many diseases. 

Unfortunately, obesity is more common in low-income households, while agriculture and animal husbandry are more common in rural areas. It has been observed that obesity is less common in people who earn their living in such professions due to their active lives. In a study of patients who survived cancer, it was observed that an active life significantly reduces the rate of cancer recurrence.

For patients diagnosed with obesity, one of the things to do to prevent cancer and many other diseases is to implement a proper diet profile for the patient under the supervision of a doctor and lead an active life. 

It was determined that this physical activity and diet would also restore the natural balance of structures such as insulin, leptin and adiponectin, reducing the risk of developing a better quality of life, certain disease groups and protecting the immune system. We know that the causes of obesity are not only physiological but also psychological. In order for the whole process to continue under the name of solid foundations, it is important that the patient continues this process with the help of psychologists.


Our data shows us that obesity is influenced by many factors such as environmental conditions, dietary habits, psychological state, and genetics. As a result of more detailed studies, we see that the expressions of some carcinogenic molecular mechanisms are abnormally affected by obesity and that obesity-origin molecules play a role in the mechanism of many diseases other than cancer. At the same time, it is accepted that obesity also appears in children, in contrast to gender discrimination, and that this situation is a topic of concern for future generations, but if we impose habits that will prevent obesity in our lives, they will protect us. against all these risks. 

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