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Parkinson's disease symptoms, signs, and complications

Parkinson's disease symptoms, signs, and complications

 Parkinson's disease symptoms, signs, and complications

Parkinson's disease is a degenerative disorder that affects the central nervous system and causes movement disorders. It is a chronic disorder that progresses and persists over the years. Nerve cells (neurons) in the brain die or become disabled. The loss of neurons occurs at the base of the brain (the substantia nigra). Today, I will tell you about the most important symptoms, signs and complications of this disease.

This region must produce dopamine, a chemical messenger that transmits signals between the basal region to the striatum, to allow smooth and purposeful movement. Loss of dopamine causes a range of movement-related problems and chronic encephalitis. Researchers have found a small substance in Lewy bodies in the brain, which is believed to be the cause of Parkinson's disease, and research is ongoing.

Parkinson's disease symptoms and signs.

Symptoms and signs of this disease may vary for different patients. Some people return early symptoms of aging. Sometimes symptoms may begin on one side of the body.

Symptoms usually include:

  • Tremor or shakiness, usually starting in one limb and may occur while at rest.
  • Muscles may become stiff in any part of the body, and may be painful or limit range of motion.
  • Movements may be slowed down (bradykinesia) causing shorter steps, or it may be difficult to get up from a chair. Simple tasks may be more difficult. Some even drag their feet when walking.
  • You may lose spontaneous movements, such as smiling or swinging your arms when walking.
  • Balance and standing may become a problem.
  • Speaking may be softer, or speech could be slurred or hesitant, or speaking in a monotonous tone is a possibility.
  • Typing may become difficult or it may appear much smaller.

Possible complications of diseases.

Parkinson's disease often accompanies many complications, some of which are treatable.

These complications include:

  • Cognitive problems such as dementia and thinking difficulties may occur in the later stages.
  • Depression and emotional problems may occur in the early stages.
  • Difficulty swallowing and slow swallowing, saliva may accumulate in the mouth and cause drooling.
  • Late-stage disease affects the muscles of the mouth, so problems with eating and chewing may occur. This can cause choking or malnutrition.
  • Sleep disturbances, such as insomnia, waking up too early or falling asleep during the day may occur.
  • Bladder problems include difficulty urinating or the inability to control urine.
  • Constipation can be a problem due to a slow digestive system.
  • Other potential problems include low blood pressure upon standing, impaired smell, fatigue, pain, and impotence.


Doctors may order an MRI, CT scan, ultrasound, or positron emission tomography (PET) scan of the brain to rule out other neurological diseases as they can only diagnose a patient by their symptoms, and Parkinson's disease is difficult to diagnose.

The most effective drug at this time is Carbidopa-levodopa as it is converted into dopamine in the body. It is usually very useful, but after several years it does not become as effective. carbidopa and levodopa are combined to reduce nausea. High doses can also lead to involuntary movements (dyskinesia). Duopa is a brand name for this drug, and it can also be given through a feeding tube that is surgically placed to deliver the drug to the small intestine for more advanced disease.

There are dopamine agonists that mimic the effects of dopamine in the brain and they are not effective, but they last longer. These include Mirapex, Requip, Neupro (in patch form) and in a syringe called Apokyn.

Other medications include:

  • MAO B inhibitors are sometimes used to help prevent the breakdown of dopamine in the brain.
  • Catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitors are prescribed to prolong the effect of levodopa treatment.
  • Anticholinergics are prescribed to help control the tremor.
  • Amantadine is used for the short-term relief of patients in an early stage of the disease.
  • Surgery can be performed on patients with advanced Parkinson's disease. An adjustable generator is implanted in the chest just below the collar bone, and electrodes are attached to a specific area of ​​the brain. Electrical impulses are sent to the brain to reduce symptoms.

Statistics for Parkinson's disease.

Parkinson's disease is increasing in number, affecting about 60,000 people in the United States, 145,000 in England and 10 million worldwide. It is the second most common neurodegenerative disease. There is no blood test or other tests for a diagnosis.

That's it for today. If you feel there is something useful, please share this with your loved ones, and don't forget to reveal your thoughts in the comment box. Or if you have any great ideas or any questions, don't forget to share them by commenting. Until then, be happy, keep smiling, keep asking questions, and please keep reading my articles. See you in the next article.